Unemployment benefits, Hartz 4 and child support are probably the best known offers when the topic comes to state benefits. But there are many more options for getting funds from the state. However, most of them have to be applied individually and actively.
The state unemployment benefit is one of the statutory social security benefits, to which every employee is automatically subject. Uninsured, however, are freelancers and the self-employed.
Unemployment benefit I
If an employee is dismissed, he is usually entitled to unemployment benefit for twelve months (up to two years for older unemployed people). Unemployed is someone who is not in employment, is making efforts to end this condition, and is available to the labor market.
Decisive for the duration of the claim is the so-called entitlement. You must have been in employment for at least 360 days in order to claim. In the case of a self-chosen termination, a three-month vesting period will initially come into effect, which will reduce the duration of the claim.
The claim to benefits begins with the notification to the Employment Agency. This is to be distinguished from the jobseeker notification that must be made when the termination of the employment relationship becomes known.
Unemployment benefit II
The unemployment benefit II, anchored in SGB II, is a basic security for persons who are able to work but who are no longer entitled to the unemployment benefit I. The terminology is confusing because the regular unemployment benefit of the employment office is not tied to the ALG II.
Thus, a reference of ALG II is also possible in a gainful employment, if the earnings are not sufficient for a living. However, the reference is linked to the condition of participation, ie the beneficiary must take measures to end his need.
In addition, there are other criteria that must be met:
- Minimum age of 15 years, but below the normal age limit,
- Employability and (permanent) availability to enter the labor market,
- Need for assistance,
- ordinary residence in Germany.
Carrier of the ALG II is a meeting of the municipalities and employment agencies for work sharing the costs. They occur in a common institution, the so-called job center (until 2011 ARGE). This is also the first port of call for potential applicants.
Those who are not able to work because of their age or a physical or psychological impairment, but still depend on government support, are entitled to basic social security benefits. In other words, persons who are fit for work are for the most part not covered by social assistance unless they need assistance in special circumstances.
Benefits of social assistance include:
- Help for living,
- Basic security in old age and reduced earning capacity,
- Health aids,
- Help in overcoming particular social difficulties,
- Help in other life situations,
- Help with care,
- Integration assistance.
The benefits consist of cash benefits from property and services.
Social assistance has emerged from the poor and health care, which has been regulated by law since the Industrial Revolution. Since 1954, due to the fundamental rights to protection of human dignity, personal development and physical integrity, there is a legal claim to social welfare by the state. The awarding of the service takes place according to the regulation in SGB XII and justifies enforceable minimum benefits according to § 38 SGB I.
The entitlement to social assistance depends on personal income and assets as well as subordinate to other state benefits such as health insurance, pension insurance or youth welfare office.
Social assistance is provided to municipalities and independent cities, whereby individual partial benefits can also be transferred to the free welfare system. The access is low-threshold already given over a call of the neighbors. The Office examines the facts and a claim associated with this disclosure.
Employee savings bonus
The employee savings allowance supports employees who only have a low annual income, but perform capital-efficient payments. For this purpose, the saver must invest the money in a contract for at least seven years, whereby in the first six years deposits must be made before the contract can rest in the seventh year.
In addition to a home savings contract, a securities savings plan is possible as an investment form. The state support for securities is 20 percent, for home savings contracts at 9 percent per year up to a maximum limit of a paid-in maximum of 400 or 470 euros for singles and 800 and 940 euros for married couples. Who spares both forms in parallel, receives double money, maximum 123 euros per year.
The application for the employee savings allowance is made simply with the corresponding cross on the tax return. The tax office transfers the sum after the seven-year blocking period.
In addition to the capital-efficient benefits, a housing premium is also possible. These are also on a home savings contract – but not on the already subsidized by the state. If you want to benefit from this, you need a second contract, which does not run through the capital gains, but is saved without the intervention of the employer.
In order to receive the premium, you must apply to the building society on an officially prescribed form – maximum until the end of the year after next (for 2016, ie until 31.12.2018.) The building society makes a message to the local tax office, which in turn the premium credits on the Bauspar contract.
Again, a seven-year blocking period applies. Those who cancel the contract beforehand usually do not benefit from the benefits.
Vocational training allowance
Anyone who has to move out of their parents’ home due to vocational training is subject to additional costs for housing and meals. If neither the parents nor the trainee can bear these costs, there is the possibility to apply for vocational training allowance.
Federal financial aid
The Federal financial aid is popular with students everywhere. Applications for monthly payments are usually made through the university’s Studentenwerk and depend on the income of the parents. Only the “parent-independent Federal financial aid” is an exception here – but is not important for most students, as this requires an education and employment.
If the income of the parents is below the maximum possible rate and other students may be required to support it, they are entitled to monthly payments.
If the Federal financial aid was still a full subsidy for needy students when it was introduced in 1971, a reorganization led to a 50-50 loan and subsidy scheme.
Since 2001, the repayment is limited to a maximum of 10,000 euros. Who receives the maximum rate over the entire standard duration of study, thus benefits from more than 50 percent state subsidies for livelihood.
In principle, the following are eligible:
- the attendance of general education schools from class 10,
- Training at technical schools and vocational schools,
- Education at secondary education schools,
- Training at academies and colleges,
- Persons younger than 30 years of training.
As a rule, only the first training path is supported, a subsequent change is only possible without problems until the second semester. Whether the study is completed in Germany or in other EU countries, is irrelevant to the claim.
Basically, low-income people are entitled to housing allowance, which can be applied for at the respective municipality. And even homeowners and self-employed, who are exposed due to rising taxes to the municipalities and staggered rental contracts ever greater financial burden, may be entitled to housing subsidy. Prerequisite: You must be named as a tenant in the lease.
Anyone who owns his own property as owner may benefit from the burden-sharing. With the exception of a few exceptions, recipients of transfer payments such as the ALG II are excluded.
For housing benefit, the time of application is relevant because a retroactive payment can not be made. The award usually takes place over a period of 12 months before a re-approval can follow.
Financial benefits for families
Families with children have higher costs than single people. Accordingly, they receive special support. Here are several options available to fill in the monthly cash.
All children under the age of 18 receive child benefit – but only if parents apply to the family fund. An application up to four years retrospectively possible, the own income plays no role in the award.
If the child starts an apprenticeship or studies, the child benefit is extended to a maximum of the 26th birthday. Unemployed children can be considered in the award up to the 21st Birthday. If a child has a disability disability and entered before the age of 25, a lifelong payment is possible.
The amount of child benefit depends on the number of children. Thus, the first and second child each receive 194 euros, the third 200 and the fourth and each additional 225 euros per month.
The parental allowance amounts to 67 percent of the last average salary (maximum of 1,800 euros per month) and is aimed at parents who stay at home for a maximum period of twelve months. If the other parent also takes at least two months of parental leave, the payment of the money is extended to a maximum of 14 months.
In addition to parental leave, a weekly working time of 30 hours is allowed.
Suddenly, if the maintenance payment of a partner for the child in the household disappears, financial difficulties quickly arise. A change in the law in 2017 brought far-reaching legislative changes into force. Thus, the subsidy will be extended from the current maximum age of 11 years to the 18th birthday, the upper limit of the period of 72 months will be repealed.
The amount of the advance on maintenance amounts to:
- 150 Euro until the 6th birthday,
- 201 euros until the 12th. Birthday,
- 268 euros until the 18th birthday.
These sums result from the minimum maintenance minus the child benefit.
The application is submitted to the responsible youth welfare office and must be in writing.
Child supplement in the Riester contract
Who has a Riester pension contract, can receive an annual allowance of 185 euros a year, if the child was born before 2008. For younger children, the amount increases to 300 euros over the period in which child support is paid.
The application for the child allowance is made on request to the appropriate provider of the Riester contract.
Further grants for parents
In addition, there are other ways for parents to receive subsidies to care for the child. These are for example:
- Child allowance for low-income parents; Application to the Employment Agency,
- Child allowance for good earners from 60,000 euros annual income, as this then has a more positive effect than the paid child benefit,
- Welcome money from the city or community, sometimes for newborns,
- Maternity Benefit (pays the health insurance on application).
There are many ways and means to get money from the state – but this usually involves an active application, because the state usually does not transfer funds without asking. That can be worthwhile, however – several hundred euros are as allowances for saving behavior in it.
In addition, the state has the mandate of basic security. In some forms, active assistance is required, other benefits are possible only on the basis of need. If it is unclear whether a claim exists, an application can at least not hurt.